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Basic Stock Trading Terminology

Blue Chip– blue chip is derived from the highest value in poker chips(white-$1, red-$5,blue-$10). Thus a blue chip stock refers to the best value corporations which are known for reliability and established.

S-shares refer to china corporations which have listed their company in singapore stock exchanges. Similarly, their Hongkong exchange counter parts are known as H-Shares and their listing in China itself, A-shares.

REITs-Real Estate Investment Trust invest in and own properties (thus responsible for the equity or value of their real estate assets). Their revenues come principally from their properties’ rents.

CFD- Contracts for Difference is a deriative instrument where traders make profit or loss without actually owning the underlying shares or equity. In certain stock markets like Singapore Exchange where short selling are not permitted, CFDs are a good alternative for traders who wishes to short a counter but do not wish to be exposed to the higher risks of warrants.

1 lot- The minimum transaction volume for most counters on the singapore exchange is 1000 shares (1 lot). There are certain exception such as Singtel where it is possible to trade 1 lot or as low as 50 shares per trade because there has been distribution to Singapore Citizens whom were given between 200 to 1000+ shares. To trade lesser than 50 shares of Singtel or lesser than 1 lot of other counters, one would have to trade in the ODD SHARES/ODD LOT market. However as the transaction volume is lower, the biding or selling prices might be different from the main market.

Buy and Hold: to buy and hold is a long term stock trading strategy. It implies buying stocks and keeping them for a long period of time before selling them. For a good number of stocks, it is historically a sound strategy, as the stock market has always gone up as a whole in the long run. Many investors, such as Warren Buffet, typically invest on companies which they are confident will be successful in the next 10 years or so, making them less likely to suffer the drawbacks on cycles and inflation.

Capital Gain: when the value of an asset exceeds its purchase price, the increase is called capital gain. Capital gain is either realized or unrealized, depending on whether the assets have actually been sold or not.

Capital Loss: when there is a decrease in an asset’s current value versus its purchase price, there is a capital loss.

Day Trader: a day trader is an investor who typically holds assets for a short period of time, usually trading them in the same day. 

Dividends: some corporations can decide to distribute earnings directly to all or part of their shareholders, rather than reinvesting them. Such earnings distributed are called dividends, and dividend stocks have a parameter called Dividend Per Share (DPS). Dividends most often come from stable and long established corporations.

Equity: equity represents ownership in a corporation, in the form of common or preferred stock. It can also be interpreted, in the case of futures or margin accounts, as the net value of the account if all positions were to be closed and margins paid off.

Going Long: going long means that a trade is done with the expectation that profit will come from an increase in the exchange rate. It the most intuitive and optimistic way a trade can be profitable.

Going Short (Selling Short): going short is the opposite of going long; it occurs when a trader is confident in making profit from a drop in the value of the traded assets.

Growth Strategy (growth stock): betting on growth stock is a stock trading strategy in which a trader aims at generating capital gains rather than dividends. Growth stocks are expected to grow at a rate superior than the average, and growth companies usually reinvest earnings. Technology companies often classify themselves as growth companies.

Hedge Funds: hedge funds are investment funds actively managed for a limited number of investors and institutions, using a wide range of investment strategies, methods and tools, such as short selling, derivatives, swaps and arbitrage. Hedge funds usually require a rather high minimum investment, and are managed by professionals charging management and performance-based fees.

Large Cap: large cap stands for large capitalization, and refers to companies with a market capitalization value of 10 billion SGD dollars or more.

Mid Cap: mid cap and refers to corporations with a market capitalization value between 2 and 10 billion SGD dollars.

Overweight: being overweight means that an investor’s portfolio holds more of a particular type of stock compared to the weight of that type of stock, in the relevant index. For instance, if an investor’s portfolio is comprised of 30% Growth stocks, and that Growth stocks represent 20% of the associated index, the portfolio is referred to as ’10% overweight’ in Growth stocks.

STI-Straits Time Index

Shorting: shorting, or short selling, or going short, means that an investor, hopeful that some assets’ value will drop, borrows them from a third party (a broker, most often), sells them, and makes the promise of returning the assets at a later time. The profit made is the difference between the price of the assets when sold versus its price when they were bought back. This can obviously yield a loss for the trader if the value goes up.

Small Cap: small cap, or small capitalization corporations, typically hold a market capitalization of between 300 million and 2 billion US dollars.

Spread: the spread for a security or asset is the difference between the current asking and the current biding price.

Volatility: volatility is a measure of risk for a security. It refers to the standard deviation of a security’s price over a certain period of time. High volatility means that the price of the security tends to move up and down quickly over a determined period of time, making it more risky.



2 Responses to “Basic Stock Trading Terminology”

  1. Some truly quality posts on this site, saved to my bookmarks .

  2. Good collection of terms & terminology. I like to save this in my folder. Please keep sharing this type of blogs.


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Symbol Bid Ask Spread
EURUSD 1.17910 1.17930 2
GBPUSD 1.28240 1.28270 3
USDCAD 1.25260 1.25290 3
USDJPY 109.270 109.290 2
USDCHF 0.96400 0.96430 3
AUDUSD 0.78930 0.78960 3
NZDUSD 0.72140 0.72190 5
EURGBP 0.91930 0.91960 3
EURCHF 1.13680 1.13710 3
EURJPY 128.840 128.870 3
AUDJPY 86.250 86.300 5
GBPJPY 140.110 140.170 6
XAUUSD 1287.04 1287.44 40
XAGUSD 16.954 16.969 1.5